date: Wednesday, 01 February 2012
- Parliamentary republic
- The supreme legislative body is the National Assembly.
- Number of the members of the National Assembly /deputies/: 240
- The mandate of the National Assembly is four years.
- Members of the National Assembly are elected directly by the voters under a system of proportional representation.
- In order to achieve parliamentary representation, parties and coalitions running for elections must score minimum 4% of the total number of ballots.
- The distribution of parliament mandates after the Pre-term General Elections held on May the 12th 2013 is: GERB (97 seats), Coalition for Bulgaria (84 seats), Movement for Rights and Freedoms (36 seats), ATAKA (23 seats).
- The National Assembly sets up temporary and constant parliamentary committees.
- The right of a legislative initiative is granted to each member of the National Assembly and the Council of Ministers, as well as to the President.
- The National Assembly passes laws, decisions, declarations, and addresses.
- The presently acting constitution was passed in July 1991.
- The constitution is the supreme law and other laws may not contradict it.
- International treaties ratified under constitutional terms, promulgated and effective for the Republic of Bulgaria, are part of the domestic legislation of the country. They take priority over norms of the domestic legislation that contradict them.
- The Constitutional Court is charged with interpreting the constitution and ruling on the legality of laws and international treaties.
- Amendments to the constitutions are required to be passed with a qualified majority of three-fourths of the deputies or by a specially elected Grand National Assembly.
- The government /Council of Ministers/ is the principal body of the executive power.
- The head of government is the Prime Minister.
- The prospective Prime Minister is nominated by the party having won the majority of votes, and then the President renders him/her a mandate to form a cabinet - i.e. the Council of Ministers.
- The Prime Minister and the composition of the Council of Ministers are approved by the National Assembly.
- The Council of Ministers is charged with guiding, overseeing, and conducting the implementation of state policies on both domestic and foreign issues, with ensuring the public order and the national security, with exercising control on the state administration and the armed forces.
- The operation of the Council of Ministers is supervised directly by the National Assembly.
- At present, Bulgaria is ruled by a coaltion government of BSP and MRF with Plamen Oresharski as a Prime Minister.
- The President is the head of state.
- He/she is elected directly by the voters.
- The President's mandate is five years, and the same person can be elected for a maximum of two mandates.
- The President is the commander in chief of the armed forces of the Republic of Bulgaria.
- The President is the Chairperson of the Consultative Council for National Security.
- The President charges the Prime Minister with forming a cabinet; schedules elections for the National Assembly as well as for local government bodies; schedules national referenda following a respective decision of the National Assembly; endorses laws, passed by the National Assembly, through a decree signed jointly with the Premier or with the respective minister.
- The President is vested the right of a suspension veto over bills passed by the National Assembly.
- The present President is Rosen Plevneliev.
- The court system in Bulgaria is constituted on the basis of a three-instance procedure. The Supreme Administrative Court /SAC/ and the Supreme Court of Appeals /SCA/ supervise the application of law by lower-instance courts, and rule on the legality of operations of the executive power.
- The functioning of the court system is organised by a Supreme Court Council /SCC/.
Local government institutions
- The principal administrative-territorial entity of the local government is the municipality.
- The Municipal Council is the institution of the local government, elected for a four-year term by the population of the respective municipality.
- Executive power at the level of the local government lies with the elected mayor of a municipality. He/she is elected directly by the population or by the Municipal Council for a four-year term.